Authors | Mara Mills

Mara Mills is Associate Professor of Media, Culture, and Communication at New York University, where she co-founded and co-directs the Center for Disability Studies. She is a founding editor of the journal Catalyst: Feminism, Theory, Technoscience. She has co-edited a special issue of Grey Room on “Audio/Visual” as well as an anthology (forthcoming from Oxford University Press) on Testing Hearing: The Making of Modern Aurality. She is currently working, with Jonathan Sterne, on the history of audio time stretching technology. More information can be found at her website:

Articles on Amodern by Mara Mills


This article details the contributions of blind readers to the development, design, and marketing of the optophone, a text-to-tone transcription machine introduced in the early twentieth century. We combine archival research with prototyping to investigate the dimensions involved in past coding and decoding practices. If archives provide testimonial fragments about individual use, 2D to 3D translation helps scholars to more broadly characterize optophone reading and understand technical affordances.